Services, Organisations, and Service Level Agreements – Part 1

In Service Desk Express 9.0 the new Services module was introduced which, in conjunction with the Organisations and Service Level Agreements modules, allows service delivery companies to manage the delivery of their service catalogue. These new modules are not for everyone – indeed there are a couple of performance issues with these modules that should not be overlooked – but for those looking to implement the functionality, this series of posts are hopefully for you.

I hope to cover all the aspects/features/functionality associated with these modules using examples. As always, I will try and make the examples as realistic as possible.


The easiest module to get your head around is the Services module. The Services module should list the services you, as a service provider, are making available to organisations to consume. As a first pass I would suggest that you start very top-level – for example:

  • Account Support Service
  • Application Support Service
  • Email Support Service
  • Hardware Support Service
  • Mobile Support Service
  • Network/Connectivity Support Service
  • Printing/Scanning Support Service

The decision as to whether you need to go any lower than this depends primarily on whether different applications say, have a different SLA’s. It may also depend on how you have defined your Categories (Support Subjects).

The key fields within Services are:

  • Name – The name of the service.
  • Description – A general description of the service.
  • Activation Date – The date the service is first available.
  • Retirement Date – The date when the service will no longer be available.


The way you set up Organisations depends entirely on how you have set up your Companies and Departments. Most Service Desk Express solutions I have seen have been internally focused. As such they will probably have a single Company as this makes reporting much much easier and in my opinion is an excellent idea unless you have a really really good reason not to. They also tend to have a lot of Departments. Service Desk Express allows your Organisations to be Company, Department or Company/Department based. The table below shows which solution is best suited to which criteria:

Situation Solution
1 More than one Company and within each Company Departments can have different SLA’s for a given Service. Organisations should be based on Companies and Departments.
2 More than one Company and within each Company all Departments have the same SLA for a given Service. Organisations should be based on Companies.
3 One Company and all Departments have the same SLA for a given Service. Single Organisation based on the single Company.
4 One Company but different departments can have different SLA’s for a given Service. Organisations should be based on Departments.

If you are in Situation 1 I feel for you as this is the same situation that I have to manage and it can get a little complicated. The more common situation is 3 or 4. So what I will cover in this post is Situation 4 which is the more complex of the two.

OK, so let’s say that we have Scenario 4 with an internal service desk servicing six departments: Sales; IT; Marketing; Facilities; Finance; and HR. Now, let’s say that Finance require a tighter SLA on the Applications Support Service then any of the other departments but only during March each year. We can create six appropriate Organisations each linked to their respective Department as per the screenshot below:


Service Level Agreements (SLA’s)

SLA’s allow you to specify conditions under which they are applied, resulting in a given Due Date and Time, and appropriate milestones. They are actually quite straightforward but there are a couple of little gotchas that you just need to be aware of. Let’s walk through the creation of a SLA that would deliver a one-hour response, 24 hour recommended fix and a 48 hour absolute fix.


The first thing you need to be aware is that the SLA module does not contain the fix durations – another module does that. In days of old (i.e. pre Service Desk Express 9.6) this was the Urgency module. So if you are using Service Desk Express 9.2 or below then, to create the SLA mentioned above, you would need to create a new Urgency form that included the Duration, Recommended Fix Duration, and Response Duration fields similar to the one shown below and create the appropriate record as shown:

48HR Urgency

Now notice here that the duration fields are WORKING hours not literal hours. This is important. So, in the example above, our 48HR literal fix time equates to 20 working hours because our work schedule is 10 hours long (0800-1800).

When BMC released Service Desk Express 9.6 they bowed to significant customer pressure that the Priority should drive the fix durations and that Priority is derived based on the combination of Urgency and Impact. What this means is that if you are using Service Desk Express 9.6 or above then you would need to create a new Impact, Urgency, and Priority record to achieve the same effect. By the way, this is not a bad thing it is just that it makes life more complicated when trying to explain all this in a blog post! Anyway, piccy below:

48HR Priority

So now that we have our Urgency (or Priority depending on what version you are using), we can now go ahead and create our SLA as shown below:

48HR SLA 01 48HR SLA 02 48HR SLA 03

So notice a couple of things. In the first piccy we have the following fields:

  • SLA ID – A unique name for the SLA.
  • Description – A freetext description of the SLA.
  • Start Date – The first date this SLA can be selected. You will NOT get the option of selecting this SLA unless the current date and time is between the Start Date and End Date fields.
  • End Date – The date this SLA can be selected.
  • Type – You can select either Service Level Agreement, Operational Level Agreement, or Underpinning Contract. What matters is that this field is purely for reporting purposes.
  • Status – You can select either Active, Draft or Disabled. The record MUST be Active to allow you to select it for NEW tickets. Existing tickets CAN have an SLA with a status of Disabled and these will still process as normal.
  • IT Owner – The Support Staff member who owns this SLA. Again for reporting purposes only.
  • Module – You can select either Incident, Problem Management or Change Request. The SLA will only work in the module selected here.

The second piccy shows the Criteria. This SLA has no criteria which means it will be available for all circumstances. We will use this screen later when we want to check if the current month is March!  The third piccy shows the Goals. This is simply the selection of the appropriate Priority or Urgency that we created above. The final piccy shows the Milestones screen:


Milestones is an interesting choice of title here. Normally, we strive to achieve milestones. In the case of BMC’s SLA Milestones these are events that you hope you DON’T achieve! Essentially they are how you monitor your tickets in real-time. A single SLA can have multiple milestones which once hit perform an specific action (usually sending an email or reassignment). One thing to bear in mind when creating these is that no two rules can have the same name and as such it is worth prefixing the rulename with the SLA ID. Below are screenshots of two you might create:

1) 48HR – Ticket Within 90% Due Date

48HR Milestone 01

2) 48HR – Ticket Passed Due Date

48HR Milestone 02


It is really easy to create loads of milestones to monitor everything and depending on just how carried away you get one or two things are likely to occur:

  • Your staff will get information overload and receive so many emails that they will create rules in Outlook to ignore them!
  • Your system will come to a grinding halt as there are performance issues with creating too many milestones!

Next Post

OK, so enough for now – this post is more than long enough. Hopefully this will get you started on how to set up your Service Catalogue, Organisation structure and Service Level Agreements. In my next post in this series, I will cover SLA Criteria (such that we can finish our example); linking Services, Organisations and SLAs;  and of course how to turn SLA Management on in the first place including the biggest gotcha of all!

LINQ – InActivating Records As Opposed to Deleting Them

Whilst there are always arguments for being able to delete records from a database, I have always preferred to InActivate my records as opposed to deleting them thus maintaining the referential integrity, history etc. With that in mind I thought I would pen a really quick post about how to do this using LINQ and VB.NET hopefully writing as little code as possible.


Consider the following (incredibly simplistic) Countries database table:

Column Name Data Type Details
ID INT Primary Key, Identity
Active BIT Not Null, Default 1
Name NVARCHAR(50) Not Null

Using Visual Studio 2008 we create a standard ASP.NET 3.5 web project called Example and add a Linq To SQL class as shown below:


Using the Server Explorer we simply drag the Countries table onto the design surface of the Example.dbml file as shown below:


We save that file and modify the Default.aspx file to include a simple Gridview and accompanying LinqDataSource:

<%@ Page Language="VB" AutoEventWireup="false" CodeFile="Default.aspx.vb" Inherits="_Default" %>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "">
<html xmlns="">
<head runat="server">
<title>JOATIT - Example</title>
<form id="frm" runat="server">
<asp:GridView ID="grvRecords" runat="server" AutoGenerateColumns="False"
DataKeyNames="ID" DataSourceID="ldsRecords">
<asp:BoundField DataField="ID" HeaderText="ID" InsertVisible="False"
ReadOnly="True" SortExpression="ID" />
<asp:CheckBoxField DataField="Active" HeaderText="Active"
SortExpression="Active" />
<asp:BoundField DataField="Name" HeaderText="Name" SortExpression="Name" />
<asp:CommandField HeaderText="Delete" ShowDeleteButton="True"
ShowHeader="True" />
<asp:LinqDataSource ID="ldsRecords" runat="server"
ContextTypeName="ExampleDataContext" EnableDelete="True" OrderBy="Name"

If we run this as it is the GridView will bind as shown below, but the Delete link will ACTUALLY delete the records from the database which is not what we want:


Instead what we want to is InActivate them when the Delete event is fired. To do this we simply open the Default.aspx.vb code-behind file and add the following custom event as shown below:

Protected Sub ldsRecords_Deleting(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As System.Web.UI.WebControls.LinqDataSourceDeleteEventArgs) Handles ldsRecords.Deleting
Dim _recordToBeDeleted As Country = CType(e.OriginalObject, Country)
Dim _db As New ExampleDataContext
Dim _specificRecord = (From _allRecords In _db.Countries _
Where _allRecords.ID = _recordToBeDeleted.ID _
Select _allRecords).Single
_specificRecord.Active = False
e.Cancel = True
End Sub

Now when we click the Delete link, our custom event fire and updates the record in question setting Active = 0, and cancels the Delete event.


More than happy to learn of a better way of doing this other than with a database trigger (which has its own advantages and disadvantages) so please, feedback (positive or negative) is always welcome.

Service Desk Express QuickViews Don’t Return Any Data

Recently I came across an unusual experience with Service Desk Express 9.8 where my QuickViews suddenly stopped returning any records. So following typical fault finding principles I considered what I had changed and all I had done was install a web application at the root of the same website containing the SDE virtual directory. The rest of Service Desk Express (and for that matter, everything else on the server ) all worked absolutely fine but the QuickViews simply returned “Retrieving data, please wait…”

I would love to say that I identified the root cause and the resolution but alas a gifted colleague did all that. Suffice to say, the issue was caused by the fact that the Service Desk Express web.config file failed to contain a default section that specifies which version of which compiler the application should use. As my new application did provide this information, Service Desk Express tried to inherit it and, as a result of .NET Framework version issues, promptly fell over.


So to the solution. If you want to have an ASP.NET web application at the root of the same website where Service Desk Express is installed, open the Service Desk Express web.config file (found in C:Program FilesBMCService Desk ExpressApplication Server by default) in Notepad and add the following section just above the </configuration> tag as shown below:

<compiler language="c#;cs;csharp" extension=".cs" warningLevel="4" type="Microsoft.CSharp.CSharpCodeProvider, System, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=b77a5c561934e089">
<providerOption name="CompilerVersion" value="v2.0"/>
<providerOption name="WarnAsError" value="false"/>


Whilst this may be a somewhat isolated situation, hopefully it will save someone pulling their hair out as we did for a morning! As always, comments, positive or negative, are always welcome.

More Traffic Lights

In previous posts ( and ( I showed how to colour code the quick views in a traffic light style using the following query:


Recently I was talking to one of our users who, when using Service Desk Express 9.8, rather liked the ability to view closed incidents in the quick views. She commented however, that when you viewed closed incidents with the above query everything went red eventually. It would be much better if you could see if the call was inside or outside SLA as defined by Close Date vs. Due Date.

So without further ado; creating a calculated field with the query below will not only achieve the same results as the previous posts but additionally will show if the incident was closed in time (Normal) or not (Critical) when looking at closed incidents:


Hope it helps. As always, please keep the feedback coming. It makes sure that what I am posting is of relevance and interest to the people reading.

Understanding the Purchase Request fields and how they are calculated

Before using the Purchase Request module it is important to understand some of the more obscure fields and how the totals are calculated. So the purpose of this post is to do just that:

Sub Total

The Sub Total is surprisingly enough quite straightforward. The code for it is:


So essentially, all that is happening here is that we are summing all the prices of the active Purchasing Items for this Purchase Request.


The simplicity of the Sub Total field is not however mirrored in the Total field. The code for it is:


So what is going on here? Well the key lies in the CI Type module (formerly known as Inventory Catalog). Each Purchasing Item (that we are summing) is of a certain CI Type and each CI Type has a flag that determines if that CI Type is Taxable or not. Now depending on whether the Purchasing Item is of a taxable CI Type or not determines whether the Tax field (in the Purchase Request module) gets added on or not. So let’s say you have a Purchase Request with two line items each costing $100. One of the line items is taxable (as determined by the CI Type) and the other is not, and you have set a tax value of 9%. The Total would be:

(100 * 1.09) + (100) = $209 + Shipping (Not Taxable)

This is rather clever but if you don’t know about it you can have a lot of head scratching trying to understand why your Totals don’t match what you think they should.

There is a significant gotcha with this system. Namely, this field is Nullable which means that if you happen to remove the field from the CI Type form then when you save a CI Type, that field is left as Null. Now, when the Purchase Request Total field attempts to sum values and returns a Null for Taxable, the entire Purchase Total becomes 0 – so whoever made that decision should be shot!


With an understanding of how these fields are calculated and the little gotchas that go along the way you should hopefully be in a better position when you are implementing/understanding Purchasing in Service Desk Express. I have included so links to other relevant articles on Purchasing below. As always, hope this has been helpful. Any comments, positive or negative, are incredibly welcome.

Related Posts: